What is Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding?
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DMK) is caused by impaired cyclic ovarian hormone production. With DMK, there are no anatomical changes in the reproductive system that could cause bleeding. Functional changes as a cause of uterine bleeding are possible at any level of regulation of menstrual function: in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands, thyroid, ovaries. DMK recur and often lead to impaired reproductive function, the development of hyperplastic processes up to precancer and endometrial cancer.
There are DMK juvenile period – in 12-18 years; MQD reproductive period – in 18-45 years; climacteric bleeding – in 45-55 years.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding of the reproductive period
MQD is about 4-5% of gynecological diseases of the reproductive period and remain the most common hormonal pathology of the reproductive system of a woman.
Causes of Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
The etiological factors of the cortex-hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary-uterus system damage can be: stressful situations, climate change, mental and physical fatigue, occupational hazards, unfavorable living conditions, hypovitaminosis, intoxication and infection, disorders of hormonal homeostasis after abortion, some drugs.
In addition to the primary disorders in the cortex-hypothalamus-pituitary system, primary disorders at the ovarian level are possible. The cause of ovulation disorders can be inflammatory and infectious diseases: in 75% of cases with inflammatory diseases of the uterus, various disorders of the menstrual function develop. Inflammation may cause thickening of the ovarian tunica, impaired blood supply and a decrease in reactive sensitivity to gonadotropic hormones.
Violations of the hypothalamic-pituitary system lead to functional and morphological changes in the ovaries and uterus. Depending on the pathogenetic mechanisms and clinical and morphological features of the DMC is divided into anovulatory and ovulatory.